AIMS: To determine the human papillomavirus DNA status of schistosomal associated squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in South Africa. METHODS: Twenty five archival samples of bladder squamous cell carcinoma associated with Schistosoma haematobium were subjected to non-isotopic in situ hybridisation and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33 genotypes. RESULTS: Using these two techniques, none of the 25 cases was shown to harbour human papillomavirus DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This study abrogates the role of human papillomavirus in schistosoma associated bladder carcinoma in South Africa. It is suggested that other factors including nitrosamine exposure, p53 mutation, and additional unknown chromosomal events play a major role in the development of this parasite associated neoplasm.
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