Inflammatory pseudotumour of the lung is a lesion mainly composed of histiocytes. Histiocyte accumulation may arise from local proliferation of migratory cells, from cytokine induced recruitment of monocytes from the systemic circulation, or both. Cell proliferation was investigated with Ki-67 immunostaining and cytokine production with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in two cases of inflammatory pseudotumour of the lung. It was found that the two lesions were composed mainly of non-proliferating (Ki-67 non-binding) macrophages that stained positive for CD68, CD14, CD4, and mannose receptor. Both cases contained mRNA transcripts for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a monocyte chemoattractant, and for interleukin 6 (IL-6), an inducer of plasma cell differentiation. One of the two cases also contained mRNA transcripts for IL-8, a neutrophil chemoattractant. These findings are consistent with the possibility that accumulation of non-proliferating histiocytes induced by MCP-1 is one of the pathogenic events occurring in inflammatory pseudotumour of the lung.
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