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Cell cycle regulators and their abnormalities in breast cancer.
  1. P L Fernández,
  2. P Jares,
  3. M J Rey,
  4. E Campo,
  5. A Cardesa
  1. Department of Anatomical Pathology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Spain.


    One of the main properties of cancer cells is their increased and deregulated proliferative activity. It is now well known that abnormalities in many positive and negative modulators of the cell cycle are frequent in many cancer types, including breast carcinomas. Abnormalities such as defective function of the retinoblastoma gene and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (for example, p16, p21, and p27), as well as upregulation of cyclins, are often seen in breast tumours. These abnormalities are sometimes coincidental, and newly described interplays between them suggest the existence of a complex regulatory web in the cell cycle.

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